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Folia Mendeliana 48 1, 2012

  • Napsal: Jiří Sekerák
  • ISBN: 0085–0748
  • Rozsah: cca 150 stran
  • Formát: 170×240 mm
  • Vazba: brožovaná
  • Datum vydání: 2x ročně
  • Dostupnost: vyprodáno

Cena s DPH: 112 Kč

 
  • Popis

Obsah čísla (Contents) 48 1, 2012

ABSTRACTS:

GREGOR JOHANN MENDEL’S ANCESTORS: THE SCHINDLER LIST1 

COLM O’HUIGIN, Cancer and Inflammation Program, Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, SAIC-Frederick, Inc. NCI-Frederick Frederick MD21702, USA

EVA MRHAČOVÁ, Katedra slavistiky, Filozofická fakulta, Ostravská univerzita, Ostrava, Czech Republic

NORMAN KLEIN, Miami Dade College, 11011 SW 104 ST, Miami, FL 33176-3393, USA

JAN KLEIN, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-5303, USA

ABSTRACT – Alois Schindler (1859–1930) was the son of Gregor Johann Mendels’s younger sister Theresia. A practicing physician, Schindler devoted much of his spare time to his hobby – genealogy of his own and Mendel’s family. From records in parish registers, Urbare, and other documents he was able to trace Mendel’s ancestry through nine generations to the middle of the sixteenth century. He summarized the results of his research in the form of tables, which we call Schindler’s List. It is one of the most extensive, if not the most extensive pedigrees of a scientist. Here we translate the main data of the List into English, clarify ambiguities, correct errors, and present the pedigree in a standard graphical form. The data Schindler gathered afford glimpses into the life of the peasant community of the Odry domain in Silesia, one of the historical lands of the Czech Crown. In this community, German- and Czechspeaking peoples lived together for centuries and intermarried, as the analysis of the surnames of Mendel’s ancestors and the parish registers indicate. Of the 38 names appearing in the pedigree, at least 11 are of Czech derivation; the latter include the maiden name of Mendel’s mother. The remnants of feudalism, under which the peasants of the community lived until Mendel’s time, restricted inter-domain gene flow, but the mixing of the Germanic and Slavic genomes through intermarriages apparently warded off potential deleterious effects of intradomain inbreeding. In consequence of the mixing, by Mendel’s time, the differences between the Germanic and Slavic communities became limited largely to the language. Claims that Mendel was an Austrian, German, or Czech are therefore patently false; by his nationality he was Silesian.

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THE DATE OF BIRTH OF JOHANN GREGOR MENDEL

ANNA MATALOVÁ, Mendelianum Museum Moraviae, Zelný trh 6, Brno genetika@mzm.cz

ABSTRACT – In the preserved documents Mendel’s date of birth is consistently given as July 22, 1822. There are only two exceptions in the numerous archival documents. First, the parish register of Vražné, second, the birth certificate derived from it twelve years later in 1834. Both mentioned exceptions give July 20th, 1822 as the day of Mendel birth. No certificate of education, passport or registration forms of the Viennese university exhibit any date of birth at all.

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TELOMERES, TELOMERASE, AND IMMORTALITY

LENKA ZDRAŽILOVÁ DUBSKÁ, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Zluty kopec 7, 656 53, Brno

Abstract – In 2009, the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine has been awarded to Dr. Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Dr. Carol W. Greider a Dr. Jack W. Szostak “for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”. A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at the end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes in eukaryotic cells. A telomerase is an enzyme which adds DNA sequence repeats to the 3’ end of DNA strands in the telomere regions and thus prevents constant loss of informative DNA from chromosome ends during each replication cycle. Telomerase activity regulation and telomeres deterioration are implicated in various pathophysiological and clinical conditions.

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HELICOBACTER PYLORI

MONIKA DVOŘÁKOVÁ HEROLDOVÁ, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, heroldova@fnusa.cz

Abstract – Helicobacter pylori is highly motile gram-negative bacterium. This bacterium colonizes the human stomach and contributes to the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. In 2005, Warren and Marshall were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine for their discovery and research on Helicobacter pylori. They proved for the first time relation between gastric ulcers and H. pylori. This discovery significantly changed approach to stomach pathology and stomach diseases treatment.

 
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